페이지 정보작성자 편집국 작성일20-08-25 17:31 댓글0건
[Reminiscences]Chapter 18 2. Kim Ju Hyon
2. Kim Ju Hyon
Kim Ju Hyon was widely known to our people as the most typical of supply officers. This did not mean, however, that he was efficient only in supply work, for he was also an excellent military commander\and skilful political worker. Before joining the guerrilla army, he had engaged mainly in underground work.
I had known him since the days before we\organized the anti-Japanese guerrilla army. In 1931, when we were making preparations for the armed struggle in Xinglongcun, Kim Ju Hyon was working underground in charge of the peasants’ association\and the Anti-Japanese\union\organizations in the village of Guodengchang, Dashahe. Kim Jong Ryong, the head of the Xiaoshahe district party\organization, had introduced him to me. In my talks with him I had found that he was a straightforward, candid man.
One day I called on him after hearingrom Kim Jong Ryong that he had been planning to expel all those who had belonged to the Independence Armyrom the Anti-Japanese\union. Having heard only bad things about the Independence Armyrom prejudiced people, Kim Ju Hyon had taken the menrom this army to be the target of the struggle. I took time to explain to him the importance of the united front in the revolution\and the need to correct his prejudice against the menrom the Independence Army, who loved the country\and hated the Japanese imperialists.
Next day, Kim Ju Hyon called on upper echelons of the Independence Army, whom he had attempted to drive out,\and apologized to them. They pronounced him a reliable man. Since then, he came to consult me whenever he had a difficult problem in his work. I, too, visited him occasionally. Although he was eight years older than I, we became good friends. In 1931 when I made his acquaintance I was not the commander of the anti-Japanese guerrilla army, but he still humbly accepted my advice.
I was charmed by his modesty. He was also very fond of me\and gave unqualified support to everything I did\and said.
Yet his family members insisted that he was an extremely obstinate man whom nobody could control. When I heard about the way in which he got married\and made a home, I understood why they criticized him.
Kim Ju Hyon’s family had\originally lived in Myongchon, North Hamgyong Province,\and compelled by poverty, moved to Helong. He always longed for his native place, having left it in his childhood. After finishing the village school he had gone to Odaejin\and worked as a fisherman toughening his small frame in the process. His elder brother had brought him to Dashahe against his will, forcing him to stay at home, because he was old enough for marriage. His family had forced him to get engaged to a girl in the neighbouring village, whom they had singled out. Since the marriage had been arranged by the parents of both families without considering the will of the betrothed, Kim Ju Hyon had never seen his fiancee.
Frequently visiting a teacher of Kusan school who had been to the maritime provinces of the Soviet\union, he learned about the Russian revolution. He was totally indifferent to the engagement ceremony being arranged by the parents of both families. When he saw his family busy preparing the wedding ceremony, he declared to his father that he would not marry a sheer stranger. His father laughed it off, but the bridegroom suddenly disappeared a few days before the wedding ceremony.
His parents were extremely worried. The girl’s family, too, made a fuss. His elder brother searched the whole of Jiandao, putting aside household affairs all winter, until he learnedrom the teacher of the Kusan school that Kim Ju Hyon was in Russia. After a lot of trouble his brother went to Russia\and brought him back home. This time Kim Ju Hyon could not escape the wedding. The moment he returned, the wedding ceremony was held.
However, he stayed awayrom home, even after the marriage, instead of working diligently on the family farm. After much thought, his father built a house for him, judging that his son would stay at home\and at least work to support his wife\and children once he had his own home. But the arrangement only boosted his revolutionary enthusiasm. In his own house, freerom the control of his parents, he had everything his own way, expanding the\organization\and enlightening the people. He dug a tunnelrom his house\and enlisted even his newly-married wife in the revolution. His father found himself helpless,\and exclaimed deploringly:
“His obstinacy really beats me!”
From this anecdote I knew that Kim was a man of guts. I liked the stubbornness with which he went his own way, acting according to his own will\and determination, no matter what others were saying.
With this same tenacity\and enterprise, Kim Ju Hyon had\organized a guerrilla unit in Helong\and was commanding it shortly after I founded the anti-Japanese guerrilla army in Antu.
It was when the new division was formed in Maanshan that we got together in the same unit after a few years’ separation.
Kim Ju Hyon’s small unit was the first to come to me in Maanshan at the news of a new main-force unit of the KPRA being formed. I was delighted at the reunion, because the lack of cadres had been a serious problem for me.
In those days we did not even have a man to take care of supply services for the unit, so the regimental political commissar Kim San Ho had to deal with them. I appointed Kim Ju Hyon as logistics officer of Headquarters,\and he gave a strong impetus to this work. Without hurrying about\or pressing supply workers, he managed to procure food\and clothing without difficulty\and improved material conditions for the army.
His ability as a competent logistics officer was displayed to the full when our unit was operating in the Mt. Paektu area.
Whenever he was out on a procurement mission, people with aid-goods on their backs arrived in rapid succession at the secret camp. He obtained anything he was determined to get.
New Year’s Day of 1937 was the most successful of all the festivals we had during the anti-Japanese armed struggle. We owed the success to Kim Ju Hyon, who had made a special effort, saying that the first New Year’s Day after our advance to Mt. Paektu should not be celebrated as an\ordinary festival.
In preparation for the Battle of Pochonbo, uniforms, caps, leggings, cartridge belts, packs\and tents for six hundred soldiers, as well as the shoes of the same number,\and a great quantity of grain were obtained, thanks to his laudable efforts\and O Jung Hup’s assistance. Although his father had been afraid that he would be unable to support even his wife,\and though he was empty-handed on Mt. Paektu, he was entrusted to provide hundreds of soldiers with food, clothing\and housing,\and did an excellent job.
Whenever I praised him for his success in his work, he said that the success should be attributed to the good people of West Jiandao. Seeing him travelling around with blistered lips\and bloodshot eyes to obtain supplies for the army,\and moved by his unremitting efforts, the people gave him their active support in his work.
Kim Ju Hyon was a good mixer, understanding people’s mental sufferings\and helping them solve their problems, just as a member of their own family would do. Back at the camp, he was a thoughtful\and tender-hearted brother to the soldiers. The people in West Jiandao called him “our logistics officer”.
Kim Ju Hyon had extraordinary abilities\and a personal magnetism with which he was able to open even the most tightly closed heart. Apparently the people were attracted by his personal charm, recognizing in him a genuine man who always spoke the truth, who approached them with sincerity, worked conscientiously\and behaved in a simple\and humble manner. No doubt this charm was the cause of every one of his successes, not only in the service of logistics but also in political work.
The special merit I found in his work was his political method of finding a solution to every problem. If I gave him the task of making uniforms, for example, he sincerely explained to his men the pressing need\and the ways to carry it out, instead of mechanically relaying the instructions of Headquarters to them.
Because I valued his political ability, I would send for him whenever a difficult\and complex political task arose. When I was sending an advance party to establish the Paektusan Base, I appointed him as its leader because the detachment was to carry out a political task in addition to its military mission. The advance party was to\select the sites for the secret camps on Mt. Paektu, open the routes to be followed by our units\and collect information on the enemy situation\and the public sentiments in the border area. It was also to find out political mass foundations on which to build underground anti-Japanese revolutionary\organizations\and make them ready for the struggle.
Kim Ju Hyon carried out his political task with credit. The distinguished service he rendered in the Mt. Paektu area as the leader of the advance party was worthy of written commendation.
The sites for the secret camps in the valleys of Sobaeksu, Mt. Kom, Saja Hill, Mt. Sono, Heixiazigou, Diyangxi, Deshuigou\and others were all\selected by his advance party. Travelling about in the farm villages of West Jiandao, such as Diyangxi, Xiaodeshui, Xinchangdong, Guandaojuli, Jongriwon village, Pinggangde, Shangfengde, Taoquanli, Sanshuigou\and others, he acquainted himself with people who could contribute to party building\and the united front movement\and built up a fairly large source of recruits for the revolutionary army. His advance party also played a great role in disseminating our revolutionary line, reflected in the Ten-Point Programme of the ARF,\and its Inaugural Declaration both in Korea\and the vast area of West Jiandao. The success his party gained became a springboard for raising the anti-Japanese armed struggle onto a higher stage.
This was the position of Kim Ju Hyon in our unit, the man whom we called first whenever a difficult task arose. He was a treasure of the unit whom everyone valued\and loved. His strong sense of duty to the revolution, high political qualifications, great\organizing ability\and seasoned work method, all these merits deserve to be a model for all commanding officers. In a nutshell, Kim Ju Hyon was a man of both great political\and military accomplishments.
As I had always held his success\and ability in high esteem, I appointed him the leader of a small unit to be dispatched to the homeland in mid-August 1937, shortly after the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War. As I mentioned in the previous section, following the outbreak of this war we planned to launch political\and military activities on a larger scale in the homeland, conduct an intensive harassment campaign behind enemy lines\and encourage a fresh upsurge in the anti-Japanese revolution in keeping with the prevailing situation. To this end, we had to build a small unit of able people, who were well prepared politically and militarily,\and dispatch them as an advance party to the necessary areas of the homeland to pave the way to our plan. This was important.
The revolutionary\organizations in the homeland informed us through different channels that many people had gathered in the mountains in the southern part of North Hamgyong Province— for example, in Songjin, Kilju, Myongchon\and Tanchon as well as the northern coastal areas of South Hamgyong Province—and were making painstaking efforts to establish links with the Korean People’s Revolutionary Army.
The basic task of the small unit was to find out these young patriots,\organize guerrilla units\and give them military training. It was also to give short courses to the people who were not physically fit for the armed struggle, so as to prepare them to become members of underground\organizations. In addition, it was to launch political work among the masses\and find able people to join\and expand underground\organizations\and armed ranks. The small unit was also given an assignment to search out sites for secret camps, the future base of armed struggle, on the Paektu mountains,\and on the Machon\and Pujon mountains.
In view of the importance of this small unit\and the work it was to perform, we\selected its membersrom our elite—people such as prominent political workers Pak Su Man, Jong Il Gwon (alias Shorty), Ma Tong Hui\and Kim Hyok Chol. As the unit was built of men of rich experience, led by a skilful commander, our trust in it was deep\and we expected muchrom it. The unit members were spirited men with a firm resolve,\and there was not a shadow of a doubt that they would carry out the task with credit.
“I will wait for good news,” I said to Kim Ju Hyon as they left. I did not explain things at length, for he always understood my intention thoroughly without lengthy explanationsrom me. If I said one word, he would catch 10 of my meanings. This was just his special merit. I held Kim Ju Hyon in unqualified trust.
All of us expected that the small unit would come back to us with good results after four\or five months at the earliest\and five\or six months at the latest.
However, to my surprise, the small unit suddenly returned a little more than one month after its departure. This was a serious event none of us had expected. I saw at a glance that their work in the homeland had ended in failure. Kim Ju Hyon’s report left me dumfounded: The unit had come back after moving around in the Kapsan area without even reaching the Songjin area\where the young patriots were waiting.
After entering Korea by the route of Xinxingcun used by Ri Je Sun, the small unit advanced to Hyesan following the\organizational line under Pak Tal’s leadership. On the way they heardrom a local\organization that the Japanese gold mine owners plundered\and stocked gold nuggets in the Jungphyong Mine to ship them to Japan.
Kim Ju Hyon decided to raid the mine\and capture the gold. The professional instinct of a logistics worker prompted him to do this in spite of himself. Even a few gold nuggets would be a windfall for his supply services. The small unit raided the mine\and captured some gold. But they had to pay for it dearly. Alarmed at the sound of gunshotsrom the Jungphyong Mine, the enemy converged on the small unit in large groups.
The small unit withdrewrom the mine\and climbed up the mountain behind Toksan-dong village, but they were surrounded by the enemy on all sides. Kim Ju Hyon wrote a note\and set it afloat in the wind to reach the enemy.
“You fools, haven’t you learned about the elusive revolutionary army yet? We are crossing the River Amnok.”
Reading the notice, the enemy hurried off to the river. Kim Ju Hyon took this opportunity to escape\and led his menrom the enemy’s encirclement. The small unit broke through the encirclement, but could not penetrate further into the homeland. The enemy covered all the mountain areas of North\and South Hamgyong Provinces\and watched every lane\where they thought the guerrilla operatives might pass. Kim Ju Hyon returned to Headquarters, putting off the performance of his mission in the homeland to a later date. Because of the absurd adventure\and terrible indiscipline of his unit, we had to postpone our plan to raise the resistance force in the homeland. We had planned to expand the armed struggle to the east coast, taking advantage of our people’s desire for independence\and our young men’s eagerness to join army, which had risen to fever pitch after the Battle of Pochonbo. The patriotic youth in the homeland who had waited for our small unit after arranging the rendezvous in Machon mountains scattered, disappointed at the failure to meet the missionrom the revolutionary army.
The news that the small unit had come back without even reaching its destination clouded the guerrillas’ minds. They were depressed, saying that the homeland must be in unusually bad shape, judgingrom the fact that such an experienced political worker as Kim Ju Hyon had failed to reach his destination\and turned back at the very border. They suspected that the expansion of the armed struggle to Korea might be impossible for the time being. The consequence of Kim Ju Hyon’s mistake was irretrievable.
I could hardly believe his mistake. His thwarting of the small unit operations, diverted by a few pieces of gold, turned our plan into a fiasco. His indisciplined action left a big hole in the KPRA’s harassment operations behind enemy lines, not to mention the thrust into the homeland. I still recall the incident now\and then with a feeling of regret: if Kim Ju Hyon had advanced to the east coast area\and met our patriotic young people, as we planned, our armed struggle might have had a more fruitful history. My disappointment\and my sense of frustration were great at that time\and I was very angry but, strangely enough, I could not say a word of reproach\or call him to account as he stood before me, head bowed, waiting for his punishment. It seemed that when my anger\or disappointment was at its height, I could not utter a word. I looked at him in silence.
The Party Committee of Headquarters held a meeting\and deliberated his case. All the comrades severely criticized him for his grave mistake. Some of them banged the floor with their fists in fury. Apparently he was facing such criticism for the first time in his life. He sat dejected as if he gave up everything.
Many people correctly analysed his mistake at the meeting of the Headquarters Party Committee. His extremely indisciplined action had been due mainly to his short-sighted judgement resultingrom self-conceit\and unjustified confidence in his small brains. He had not interpreted the task of the small unitrom the strategic point of view. He lost his reason when he heard about gold,\and in raiding the mine he never thought about its consequences. As he confessed, he intended to kill two birds with one stone. In other words, he was going to obtain gold by attacking the mine;\and he was also going to meet the young people to\organize armed units.
Of course, I thought that his confession was sincere. All he said was true. We knew well how frank\and upright he was. However, it was natural that everyone should become indignant at his conduct, because no matter what their intentions had been, the small unit had returned in failure, without even reaching the place\where they were to work.
I wanted to forgive him, but I could not speak a word on his behalf. A commander should not be swayed by friendship\or deal with the case contrary to principle. Conniving at his error because of personal feeling would be harmful in all respects. The only thing I could do to help Kim Ju Hyon was to provide an opportunity for him to correct his mistake.
The Headquarters Party Committee decided to dismiss himrom the post of logistics officer. I, too, voted for the decision. Seeing him leave the Headquarters in low spirits after being punished, I blamed myself for not having helped him in advance to avoid making the mistake.
If I had warned him that he should go directly to the comrades in the homeland, no matter what happened on his way, things would not have come to this pass. To be honest, I had never imagined an extraordinary situation in which something like a few lumps of gold would tempt the logistics officer to change his course of action.
After his dismissal, Kim Ju Hyon put all his heart into his own ideological training. Nowadays, this kind of training is called revolutionary transformation.rom the first day of his reappointment to the cooking unit, he always carried a cauldron on his back whenever the unit moved. Though it must have cost him a great deal, he carried the cauldron on his back even in the presence of his former subordinates. Someone in such a situation usually asks to be transferred elsewhere; Kim Ju Hyon neither complained, nor was he ashamed of his job as a cook. Instead, he worked so conscientiously that his fellow soldiers were sorry for him. He always looked bright\and cheerful.
One day I visited the mess hall of the 8th Regiment to see how Kim Ju Hyon was doing. He was sweating profusely, serving the men at table.
At that moment, one of the men ate up his soup in an instant\and called out to Kim Ju Hyon, rapping an enamelware bowl with his spoon.
“Hey, cook, one more bowl of soup!” He sounded impolite, obviously looking down upon Kim.
“Yes, with pleasure,” Kim Ju Hyon replied politely. He filled a bowl with soup\and walked quickly over to the man.
That night I sent for the man\and admonished him. I said that he should not\order a man about\or look down on him simply because he was dismissed for a mistake,\and that he should treat him with more warmth\and give him sincere help instead of treating him with contempt\or giving a wide berth to him. He accepted my advice\and apologized for his mistake.
One’s social position is not immutable—one may gain\or lose it. Therefore, people must respect man’s personality, not his social position, if they are to maintain a true comradely relationship.
If their neighbours experience mishap, people must help them warmly\and sincerely.
When comrades were dismissedrom their posts for mistakes, the anti-Japanese revolutionary fighters never treated them coldly\or shunned them, but helped them in every way to correct their mistakes.
One day, about one week after Kim Ju Hyon had started working in the cooking unit, I approached him on the march\and asked him to take off his pack. I felt sorry for him, as he was walking laboriously carrying a rifle, a knapsack\and a cooking pot.
He declined, saying that it was not heavy. When I held the strap of his pack to take it off, he pushed my hand aside obstinately\and walked on. That saddened me. I wondered whether he wasn’t mortified at the decision of the party meeting to dismiss him. When I glanced quickly at his face, I saw him shedding tears. The tears weighed on my mind: What made a man of strong heart shed tears?
Kim Ju Hyon had experienced indescribable sorrow\and misfortune as a man. His wife was killed in one of the enemy’s “punitive” operations when she was doing political work in a local area,\and his daughter died of a disease. When he joined the guerrilla army he gave his only son to another family. Afterwards, he lived only for the revolution.
That day, after all the men fell asleep, I made for the camp of the 8th Regiment to see Kim Ju Hyon. At the cooking place I witnessed an unexpected sight. I thought that he would be eating his heart out in bed, but he was polishing a cauldron with a scrubber on the brook.
I told him to work in the arsenal, starting the next day. I said that he would be easy in mind if he could work there, because its surroundings were quiet\and nobody would hurt his pride there. With tears in his eyes he replied that he would be easy in mind only if he could remain at my side even while he was being punished.
“I saw you shedding tears in secret\and interpreted it in my own way. I thought you were crying because of your job as a cook, so I thought I should transfer you to the arsenal.” When I said this, he grasped my hands with a smile.
“No. I cried because I was grateful to you for feeling sympathy even while you were punishing me\and because I had a guilty conscience about forgetting your great concern. Do you know what I feared most when the Headquarters Party Committee was deliberating my case? I was afraid of being dismissedrom the ranks\and driven out. When I die, I want to die here. Awayrom the revolutionary ranks, life is not worth living. I thank you for allowing me to work even in the cooking unit.”
Listening to him, I now understood what was going through his mind as he was scrubbing the cauldron in the brook. Nothing mattered to him as long as he could only stay with us, regardless of his own interest. He did not care whether he was a commander\or a cook, whether he was criticized\or punished, as long as he was not removedrom the revolutionary ranks. This was a true personality of Kim Ju Hyon.
A man of such character accepts criticism\or punishment by his comrades, seeing these as a part of their trust\and love. The moment he was being criticized by his comrades, he was thinking only of the great loss the revolution had suffered because of his mistake.
“I thought I was a perfect revolutionary, but I was naive. If it weren’t for the Comrade Commander’s trust, I would be merely a green revolutionary. My comrades criticized me correctly. I will take this opportunity to train myself ideologically so as to become a top guerrilla fighter.”
With such determination he went on to make strenuous efforts to transform himself.
He studied very hard while working in the cooking unit. In November of the year he was punished, the Secretariat of Headquarters published my thesis The Tasks of Korean Communists in pamphlet form. Kim Ju Hyon was the first to obtain\and read it. The cooking unit soldiers were afraid that the logistics officer, whom they respected\and followed, would break downrom exhaustion, because he studied so hard without caring for his health. They slipped the pamphlet out of his pack\and hid it between some rocks behind the tent.
Kim Ju Hyon searched for it for several days. He got all the worse\and even lost his appetite. This rather upset the soldiers, so when he was absent, they took the pamphlet outrom its hiding place\and put it back into the pack. One of them said, “Comrade Ju Hyon, please root around more carefully through your pack. A thing cannot disappear by itself.” When he found the lost pamphlet in the pack, he was as delighted as a child\and said, “That’s strange—I feel as if I were haunted.”
He transformed himself. He was truly worthy of a veteran revolutionaryrom the working class. His efforts to train himself were so strenuous that one could not look upon him without emotion. This is why I still insist that if cadres are to revolutionize themselves, they should follow the example of Kim Ju Hyon.
Six months after he was dismissedrom the post of logistics officer, we appointed him commander of the 7th Regiment. We did this rather than reinstating him in his former post because he always longed to be on the battlefield in the midst of roaring gunfire.
He fought well after he became a regimental commander, displaying his ability to the full as an adroit\and daring military commander in the spring offensive launched by the KPRA main force in 1938. This offensive included battles in Jiazaishui\and Shierdaogou, Changbai County, Liudaogou in Linjiang County, Shuangshanzi, Wujiaying, Jiajiaying\and Xintaizi,\and Kim did an exceptional job of leading his regiment in all these battles, as well as in many other big\and small battles subsequent to the offensive. In summer that year he led his unitrom Xintaizi to Mengjiang, Liuhe\and Jinchuan, striking the enemyrom behind\and demonstrating his excellent commandership. His 7th Regiment also distinguished itself in political work among the people. Whenever the regiment went to a village, the commander involved himself actively in the work with the villagers.
Kim Ju Hyon fell in action, surprised by the enemy’s “punitive” troops in October 1938. He was gathering honey with Kim Thaek Hwan\and Kim Yong Guk at the time in the forest of Nanpaizi, Mengjiang County, for the patients in the field hospital. After becoming a regimental commander, he did not forget to continue providing his comrades-in-arms with food, clothing\and housing as he had done when he was a logistics officer.
After he was killed in battle, his comrades opened his pack to find almost nothing in it, not even the spare shoes carried by every soldier. His\orderly said that he had given his spare shoes to a man whose shoes had worn out.
I burst into tears as I held his empty pack. If all the grain, fabrics for military uniforms\and shoes that he had obtained for our revolutionary army since he became our logistics officer had been piled up, it would have been as high as a mountain. Just the shoes he had obtained numbered thousands of pairs. Yet he had given his only spare shoes to his comrade.
His empty pack made me meditate on the property of a revolutionary\and his outlook on life. It is man’s nature to want a happy life,\and many people in the world value only gold.rom the viewpoint of such people, Kim Ju Hyon belonged to the have-nots. But to my mind he was really a man of great wealth, because all his life he had cherished a noble ideal\and because he had a soul that could not have been bartered, even for a colossal sum of gold.
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